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Fuchs, D., Iba, Y., Heyng, A., Iijima, M., Klug, Ch., Larson N. L., & Schweigert, G. 2019. THE MUENSTERELLOIDEA: PHYLOGENY AND CHARACTER EVOLUTION OF MESOZOIC STEM OCTOPODS. Papers in Palaeontology, 1–62. https://doi.org/10.1002/spp2.1254
Abstract: The Muensterelloidea is a superfamily of teudopseid octobrachians with a posteriorly patella‐shaped gladius. A morphometric comparison based on 148 muensterelloid gladii has yielded five new species accommodated in three new genera: Engeseriteuthis arcuatus gen. et sp. nov., Muensterella jillae sp. nov., Muensterella spinosa sp. nov., Tyrionella fauseri gen. et sp. nov. and Muensterellina johnjagti gen. et sp. nov. Cretaceous taxa ‘Tusoteuthis’ cobbani and ‘Muensterella’ tonii are re‐combined and placed within the genus Enchoteuthis. We introduce categories for gladius proportions applicable for both muensterelloid and non‐muensterelloid octobrachian gladii. A 2D‐landmark analysis including 64 muensterelloid and non‐muensterelloid gladii statistically confirms that the Muensterelloidea possess the smallest median field sizes of all Mesozoic gladii. We consider the lateral field‐dominated ‘gladius’ of the family Patelloctopodidae (Patelloctopus, Pearceiteuthis) to be vestigial (i.e. shorter than the mantle length) suggesting that the Patelloctopodidae are the last shared ancestors of incirrate and cirrate octopods. According to a phylogenetic analysis based on 31 gladius characters, the Muensterelloidea mainly consists of the ‘Muensterella‐Enchoteuthidae’ and the ‘patelloctopodid’ clade. Ancestral character state reconstructions suggest that an increasing posterior growth front is accompanied by a continuous decrease of the median field length. This milestone in the evolution of the octopod gladius vestige occurred between the Early and Middle Jurassic. The benthic life style of incirrate octopods (including Cretaceous palaeoctopodids) was adopted by Jurassic Patelloctopodidae, which arose from nectonic to nectobenthic teudopseid ancestors. There is currently no evidence to suggest a pelagic origin for benthic octopods.
Key words: Coleoidea, Octopoda, gladius vestige, phylogeny, shell evolution.
Published online 16-01-2020 by A. M. Heyng
First record of discinid brachiopods from Late Jurassic Plattenkalk deposits of southern Germany
Autoren: Mike Reich, Alexander M. Heyng, Bork Ilsemann, Alexander Nützel & Tanja R. Stegemann
Präsentation: 88. Jahrestagung der Paläontologischen Gesellschaft, 26.-30. März 2017, Münster
The Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Plattenkalk deposits of southern Germany (e.g., Solnhofen, Eichstätt, Pfalzpaint, Painten, Brunn, Wattendorf) are famous for their diverse and exceptionally preserved fauna and flora. So far, there are around 1,800 species, mostly macrofossils, reported from these strata. However, with the help of non-applied or hitherto unused micropalaeontological methods, new (or so far unrecorded) species or groups can be detected.
In the present study we report the first find of organophosphatic-shelled brachiopods (Linguliformea: Discinoidea) from the Late Jurassic Plattenkalk deposits of southern Germany.
Fossil and modern Discinida
Linguliform brachiopods were major components of marine assemblages from the Early Cambrian onwards, but their evolution and palaeogeography during the Jurassic–Cretaceous is poorly understood, as a result of a sparse fossil record.
Discinid brachiopods are epifaunal, fixo-sessile invertebrates, common in some Recent environments (intertidal) and attached by a highly muscular pedicle to various hard substrates. The discinid pedicle acts as an anchor, and it supports the weight of the shell and holds it in relative position to the substrate. The ventral valve is always oriented toward the substratum (Fig. A), a feature that discinids share with craniids and articulate thecideid brachiopods. Modern discinids (solitary or known in clusters; Fig. B) have a cryptic mode of life on the underside of pebbles or attached to larger boulders embedded in soft substrate.
In the fossil record (since the Ordovician), discinids are also known attached to articulate brachiopods, bivalves, cephalopods, and conulariids.
Importance of the material
As already stated this is the first record of organophosphaticshelled brachiopods from Late Jurassic Plattenkalk deposits of southern Germany. Summarized, our data reveal a linguliform brachiopod diversity hitherto unknown from Jurassic Plattenkalk Lagerstätten. The new recorded data will help to develop a more detailed palaeobiodiversity as well as palaeoecological interpretation of Late Jurassic Plattenkalk deposits in southern Germany. The discovery of a diverse discinid brachiopod fauna offers in part new insight into palaeoenvironmental patterns and former benthic habitats of the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Archipelago. The applied micropalaeontological methods in isolating microscopic/mesoscopic invertebrates is seen to be promising for the study of neglected or overlooked fossils in general.
Discinid brachiopod shells (especially ventral valves) are generally rare in the Mesozoic/Cenozoic fossil record, therefore they have often been taken to indicate a low preservational potential. The here presented organophosphatic brachiopod material is based on >100 (microscopic / mesoscopic) isolated valves (rock disintegration by using buffered acetic acid) from the Early Tithonian Mörnsheim Formation (Hybonotum Zone: Moernsheimensis Subzone, ~149 Ma; Fig. C) of two sections in Mühlheim near Solnhofen, Upper Bavaria, Germany.
Three species of the Discinidae (Figs. D-G) can be identified from our strata, including a new genus and species (related to Discinisca and Discradisca). In
addition, we documented the associated macro-, meso-, and microfauna (Reich et al. in prep.) of the studied sections. All recorded discinid brachiopods are associated with sponges
(Hexactinellida, Demospongea), bivalves and other invertebrates and microfossils.
Acknowledgements: We are indebted to Marlena Olbrys (formerly LMU Munich) for technical help. Furthermore, we
would like to thank the owners and operators of the Mühlheim quarries, Ulrich Leonhardt, Roland Pöschl, and Uwe Krautworst, for logistics and support.
Published online 19-12-2017 by M. Reich, A. M. Heyng, B. Ilsemann, A. Nützel & T. R. Stegemann